The following reports provide an assortment of information, including lessons learned from past storms, hurricane and coastal flooding preparedness, public policy, building performance, hurricane mitigation, growth management, evacuation behavior and attitudes, evacuation shelter-selection guidelines, and contingency planning. Reports can be accessed by following one of the links below. Note: most of the reports are in Portable Document Format (PDF). Download Adobe® Reader® to view the reports.
Tri-State Hurricane Property Loss Study: Executive Summary for Alabama, Florida, and Mississippi (2 MB PDF)
Summary: This report summarizes the results of the first phase of a two-phase program. The objective of the Tri-State Hurricane Property Loss and Contingency Planning Study, Phase I, is to estimate the property damages that could occur from potential hurricanes striking the most vulnerable areas of the central gulf coast.
Tri-State Hurricane Property Loss Study: Technical Data Report for Alabama, Florida, and Mississippi (26 MB PDF)
Summary: This is a technical data report that presents the results of the first phase of a two-phase program. The purpose of this phase of the study is to estimate the property damages that could occur from potential hurricanes striking the most vulnerable areas of the central gulf coast.
Tri State Hurricane Loss and Contingency Planning Study Phase II Executive Summary and Technical Data Report (16 MB PDF)
Summary: This report presents the results of the second phase of a two-phase program. The main objective of the phase II report is to compile a list of appropriate and potentially effective mitigation measures that communities can adopt to lessen the property damages that may result from a hurricane striking the area.
Creating a Hurricane Tolerant Community: City of Venice, Florida (15 MB PDF)
Summary: The purpose of this study is to review the geography of Venice, Florida, and develop programs to prevent or mitigate future hurricane disaster problems. The goal of the Hurricane Tolerant Community program is to reduce the impacts of a disaster by identifying and addressing the destructive elements associated with the impending disaster.
Pilot Study for Pre- and Post-Hurricane Mitigation and Development for Fernandina Beach (12 MB PDF)
Summary: The purpose of this study is to provide recommendations, funding options, and an implementation schedule for pre- and post-storm mitigation (nonstructural and structural), and redevelopment measures that can be presented for adoption by the City of Fernandina Beach.
Pre- and Post-Hurricane Mitigation and Development in Wakulla County (18 MB PDF)
Summary: This document is intended to evaluate current hurricane mitigation activities performed within Wakulla County, Florida. The document also provides recommendations regarding improvements to current measures and presents alternative measures that could be considered by the local governments in the area.
State of Florida Model Hurricane Evacuation Shelter Selection Guidelines Student Manual (39 MB PDF)
Summary: In the case of a major hurricane, the time required to evacuate vulnerable populations from coastal areas will increase dramatically as coastal populations grow. Forecast lead times have not significantly improved, making prediction of a specific landfall location more than 12 hours before its occurrence difficult. It is therefore important that vulnerable populations that are unable to evacuate in a timely manner be sheltered initially in or as close to their communities as possible.
Tampa Bay Region Hurricane Loss and Contingency Planning Study (200 MB PDF)
Summary: This report documents the analyses, findings, and recommendations of the Tampa Bay Region Hurricane Loss and Contingency Planning Study. The project's overall objective was to formulate quantitatively-based recovery strategies and hazard mitigation policies based on property loss estimates from future probable hurricane scenarios.
Islands Task Force Report (135 MB PDF)
Summary: The Islands Task Force Report is a briefing on hurricane evacuation study needs in United States island communities. It summarizes the organization and goals of the Islands Task Force, the unique island issues related to hurricane evacuation study technical components, and recommendations for future studies.
A New Storm Surge Atlas for the Pamlico Sound North Carolina Area (97 MB PDF)
Summary: The purpose of this atlas is to provide maps from a numerical storm surge model that calculates the height of sea, lake, and overland surges from hurricanes (SLOSH), and extent of flood inundation. All of these are calculated for various combinations of hurricane strength, forward speed of storm, and direction of storm motion.
Building Performance Assessment: Hurricane Fran in North Carolina – Observations, Recommendations and Technical Guidance (50 MB PDF)
Summary: This report presents FEMA's Building Performance Assessment Team's (BPAT) observations on the success and failure of buildings in North Carolina to withstand the wind and flood forces generated by Hurricane Fran. The BPAT team gives recommendations on improving building performance with the goal of reducing damage caused by future hurricanes.
Hurricane and Storm Mitigation and Reconstruction Plan for Nags Head, North Carolina (3 MB PDF)
Summary: This report states the amendments to the code of ordinances of Nags Head, North Carolina. Included are all hurricane and storm reconstruction and redevelopment ordinances that were created to alleviate the effects of future disasters.
Reducing Hurricane and Coastal Storm Hazards through Growth Management: A Guidebook for North Carolina Coastal Localities (14 MB PDF)
Summary: This document serves as a guide that will assist North Carolina coastal localities in developing and implementing hurricane mitigation and post-storm reconstruction programs. The manual describes the limitations of many structural approaches to mitigation and instead focuses on growth management as a viable alternative.
Building Performance Assessment Report: Hurricane Georges in Puerto Rico — Observations, Recommendations, and Technical Guidance (76 MB PDF)
Summary: This report presents FEMA's Building Performance Assessment Team's (BPAT) observations on the success and failure of buildings in Puerto Rico to withstand the wind and flood forces generated by Hurricane Georges. The BPAT team gives recommendations to improve building performance with the goal of reducing damage caused by future hurricanes.
Puerto Rico Emergency Management for Kids (286 MB ZIP)
Summary: This series of interactive documents, graphics, and movies provides information on multiple hazards and various preparedness activities for children and families who live in Puerto Rico. Graphics, fact sheets, and definitions describe the types of natural hazards and what can be done to protect families and individuals on the island.
Hurricane Vulnerability for Charleston County (2 MB PDF)
Summary: The purpose of this narrative is to provide a ready reference of tropical cyclone statistics adapted to the various counties along the South Carolina coastline. These data were extracted from either climatological data, information provided by Dr. Brian Jarvinen of the National Hurricane Center, or material specifically computed by Mr. Charlie Neuman for inclusion into this study. Mr. Neuman conducts research at the National Hurricane Center.
Southeast United States Hurricane Evacuation Traffic Study (8 MB PDF)
Summary: After the public's experience during Hurricane Floyd, the federal government produced this study to address problems that surfaced during the evacuation. Specifically, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina were promised an initial study to find out what the public did in response to Floyd, a Web-based travel demand forecast system that would anticipate evacuation traffic congestion and cross-state travel flows, and coordination with the states' Department of Transportation on one-way strategies and Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) technologies.
Hurricane Surge Predictions for Chesapeake Bay (2.0 MB PDF)
Summary: This report presents a comprehensive investigation of hurricane surge problems for the Chesapeake Bay area. The report presents and calibrates methods and techniques with available surge data so that the computational procedures result in reasonable estimates of maximum hurricane surge for design purposes. Further refinements of these results will require additional suitable hurricane surge data.
Hurricanes Bertha and Fran in North and South Carolina: Evacuation Behavior and Attitudes toward Mitigation (3 MB PDF)
Summary: This report summarizes telephone interviews that were conducted with residents of both states to document their evacuation behavior and to measure their attitudes toward and adoption of practices to reduce damage in the future.
Hurricane Hugo: Lessons Learned in Energy Emergency Preparedness (4 MB PDF)
Summary: This report summarizes the lessons that were learned after Hurricane Hugo about energy emergency preparedness. It explains how to use these lessons to prepare before the storm, cope during the storm, and to restore and recover the energy systems afterwards. The report also emphasizes the actions needed for government and industry to work together to efficiently and effectively mitigate the effects of natural disasters.
Learning from Hurricane Hugo: Implications for Public Policy (4 MB PDF)
Summary: This report is a collection of the findings and the conclusions of other research investigations and evaluations that were done after Hurricane Hugo. The goal of this report is to provide a summary of the information collected from the Hugo experience that would be relevant to public officials at any level who have to plan for or manage disasters.
Learning from Hurricane Hugo: Implications — Annotated Bibliography (4 MB PDF)
Summary: This bibliography is a collection of citations and annotations for the material written in "Learning from Hurricane Hugo: Implications for Public Policy." These resources were selected according to the authors' or organizations' official roles, and whether the resource contained information that could have implications on public policy. Most of the entries are scholarly or scientific studies, or the work of local, state, or federal officials whose agencies have some responsibility for managing natural hazards like hurricanes.
Hurricane Preparedness: Guidelines for Marinas (45 MB PDF)
Summary: This report can be used by marina operators to prepare for, respond to, and recover from hurricanes and severe weather. It outlines specific guidelines for marina managers or boat owners on how to develop a plan for hurricanes.
Preparing for Hurricanes and Coastal Flooding: A Handbook for Local Officials (7 MB PDF)
Summary: This handbook is designed to help local officials prepare for hurricanes and coastal flooding and gives an overview of the steps required to identify actions for a community, with particular attention to information collection. It also provides a detailed look at some techniques communities can use to reduce damages from hurricanes and coastal flooding.
Storm Preparedness Planning Guide (6 MB PDF)
Summary: The purpose of this publication is to provide the reader with a collection of useful information on a storm preparedness program and to identify specific activities that should be considered when developing this type of program. The major program elements that are discussed include intergovernmental coordination, planning, public education, mapping, and mitigation.
The Next Step Incorporating Information from Comprehensive Hurricane Evacuation and Property Loss Studies into Community Emergency Plans and Programs (7 MB PDF)
Summary: This manual analyzes past data and determines how they can best be used to revise and update existing procedures and improve hurricane planning. The examples presented in this manual are based primarily on what Lee County, Florida, has done with the information, and as a result the manual's focus is oriented towards local emergency program managers.
Hurricane Climatology for the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States (8.2 MB PDF)
Summary: This report is a comprehensive set of hurricane climatological statistics for the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the U.S. Coastal tidal inundations of these areas are primarily caused by hurricanes, and therefore the characteristics of these storms are the beginning point in making tidal flood-frequency analyses that are essential in establishing flood insurance criteria for a given community.
Characteristics of the Hurricane Storm Surge (8 MB PDF)
Summary: This report discusses the principal characteristics of the coastal flooding produced by hurricanes and the physical processes that are believed to account for the observations. The report examines the assembled data, the methods used in processing the data, and the resulting uncertainties in the final figures. Part two of the report presents the assembled data from a number of the best documented hurricane storm surge cases.
Title: SLOSH: Sea, Lake, and Overland Surges from Hurricanes (April 1992) (11 MB PDF)
Summary: This report presents a numerical-dynamic, tropical storm surge model, SLOSH, for real-time forecasting of hurricane storm surges on continental shelves, across inland water bodies, along coastlines, and for inland routing of water either from the sea or from inland water bodies. The National Weather Service uses the SLOSH model for operational forecasting to simulate the flooding caused by individual hurricanes.