Measured Storm Effects
The following reports provide an assortment of information on measured storm effects such as high water marks, storm damage surveys, and inland wind effects. Reports can be accessed by following one of the links below. Note: most of the reports are in Portable Document Format (PDF). Download Adobe® Reader to view the reports.
Pertinent Meteorological Data for Hurricane Allen of 1980 (3.7 MB PDF)
Summary: This report provides information on a single storm event, Hurricane Allen, for possible use in dynamic storm surge models. The study presents detailed analyses of the storm track, forward speed, central pressure, and radius to maximum wind, with particular attention given to the period surrounding landfall.
Storm Tide Elevations Produced by Hurricane Andrew Along the Southern Florida Coasts, August 24, 1992 (77.3 MB PDF)
Summary: This report contains data collected in southern Florida for flood elevations and depths caused by Hurricane Andrew. In the weeks that followed the storm, high water marks were identified, described, and surveyed along the southeastern coast of Florida and in selected areas along the southwestern coast to document the extent of flooding. A total of 336 high-water marks are described in tabular form in this report and their locations are plotted on nineteen 7.5-minute topographic quadrangle maps.
Hurricane Bonnie High Water Marks Collection (63.3 MB ZIP)
Summary: The purpose of this report is to present high-water-mark data that were collected in the coastal counties of North Carolina following Hurricane Bonnie in late August 1998. It contains sections that describe the procedure used to obtain the high- water marks, data sheets showing comparisons of the high-water marks of Hurricane Fran with those of Bonnie, and photographs.
Pertinent Meteorological and Hurricane Tide Data for Hurricane Carla (4.5 MB PDF)
Summary: This report combines the meteorological and oceanographic data for a single storm event, Hurricane Carla, providing information useful for storm surge modeling. The study presents detailed analyses of the storm track, forward speed, central pressure, and radius to maximum wind, with particular attention given to the period surrounding landfall. Tide gage and high water mark data give both a time history and geographic depiction of the storm surge.
Hurricane Georges: Storm Surge-Mississippi, Alabama, Florida (174 MB PDF)
Summary: The purpose of this report is to present the high-water-mark data collected along the Gulf of Mexico beaches, river bays, sounds, and estuaries where significant storm surge occurred as a result of Hurricane Georges. The Gulf Coast area was limited to the coastlines of Alabama, Mississippi, and Northwest Florida.
South Florida High Water Marks — Post Georges from Key West to Key Largo Florida; from Flamingo to Fort Myers Florida (141 MB PDF)
Summary: The purpose of this report is to cover the survey methodologies and to summarize the description and location of the high-water marks that resulted from Hurricane Georges in South Florida. It contains detailed tables that include coordinate points, addresses, elevation measurements, and photographs of each mark.
Hurricane Floyd High Water Marks Collection (1.48 GB ZIP)
Summary: The purpose of this report is to present the high-water-mark data and inundation maps produced using the data collected along the coastal area in South Carolina impacted by Hurricane Floyd. These locations include central portions of the Little Peedee, Lumber, and Waccamaw River flood plains, as well as the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway in Dillon, Marion, and Horry Counties, South Carolina.
Study of Inland Wind Effects of Hurricane Fran and Assessment on Inland Wind Model (56 MB PDF)
Summary: This report summarizes an investigation conducted to evaluate the damages resulting from inland winds associated with Hurricane Fran, verify and standardize the recorded wind data, compare wind information displayed by FEMA's Inland Wind Display Model with the recorded wind data, and ultimately assess the ability of the model to accurately display inland wind speeds.
Hurricane Fran High Water Marks Collection (88.6 MB ZIP)
Summary: The purpose of this report is to present the high-water-mark data and the inundation maps produced from high-water marks along the coastal area impacted by Hurricane Fran. The data were collected from Southport to Beaufort, North Carolina.
High Water Mark Survey and Coastal Inundation Mapping — Hurricane Fran, North Carolina (74.3 MB PDF)
Summary: The goal of this investigation and study was to determine and map the approximate high-water elevations of the stillwater storm surge and of the combined effects of storm surge and waves for the open coast and inland bay areas affected by Hurricane Fran. The results of the survey help to establish an approximate coastal flood inundation limit and a wind/water line along the affected reaches.
Hurricane Opal: Florida Panhandle Wind and Water Line Survey (9.7 MB PDF)
Summary: The goal of this investigation and study was to determine the approximate high-water elevation of the storm surge and combined storm surge and wave run-up in the open coast and inland bay areas affected by Hurricane Opal. The places surveyed included areas near Navarre and Ft. Walton Beach in Santa Rosa County, Florida, and other areas east of the landfall to Mexico Beach in Bay County, Florida.
Draft Report: Study of Inland Wind Effects of Hurricane Opal and Assessment of Inland Wind Model (39.7 MB PDF)
Summary: This report was conducted as an investigation to evaluate the damages resulting from inland winds associated with Hurricane Opal, verify and standardize the recorded wind data, compare wind information predicted by the Inland Wind Model with the recorded wind data, and ultimately assess the ability of the model to predict wind speeds accurately and support the prestorm estimation of expected damage levels.